Showing posts with label VITAMINS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label VITAMINS. Show all posts

Saturday, 21 September 2013


A vitamin (US /ˈvtəmɪn/ or UK /ˈvɪtəmɪn/) is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts. An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for humans, but not for most other animals, and biotin (vitamin H) and vitamin D are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances.

What it does:
  • helps convert the food we eat to the energy we need
Foods that have thiamin:
  • spinach, tomato juice, watermelon, sunflower seeds, ham
Deficiency problems:
  • weakness, tingling in feet and hands, poor coordination
Riboflavin - named for its yellow color (flavus means yellow in Latin)
What it does:
  • helps convert the food we eat to the energy we need
Foods that have riboflavin:
  • milk, cheese, liver, broccoli, asparagus, spinach
Deficiency problems:
  • eye disorders, cracks at corners of mouth, swollen tongue
What it does:
  • helps our body use the fat and sugar we eat for energy
  • helps keep our skin healthy
Foods that have niacin:
  • mushrooms, tuna, green beans, broccoli, spinach, breakfast cereals
Deficiency problems:
  • diarrhea, skin problems, mental disorientation
Vitamin B6
What it does:
  • helps make red blood cells
  • helps our body use the fat and protein we eat for energy
Foods that have vitamin B6:
  • spinach, broccoli, tomato juice, banana, watermelon, chicken breast
Deficiency problems:
  • headache, convulsions, vomiting, flaky skin, sore tongue
What it does:
  • helps to make new cells
  • helps prevent heart disease
Foods that have folate:
  • asparagus, broccoli, corn flakes, green beans, tomato juice, beans
Deficiency problems:
  • diarrhea, mental disorders, poor growth
Vitamin B12
What it does:
  • helps to make new cells
Foods that have vitamin B12:
  • meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs
Deficiency problems:
  • anemia, poor nerve function
Vitamin C- almost all animals make vitamin C in their bodies (only humans, guinea pigs, some bats, and some fish don't)vitamin c
What it does:
  • protects cells from damage
  • helps keep bones and skin healthy
  • may help prevent cancer and heart disease
Foods that have vitamin C:
  • oranges, strawberries, peppers, kiwi, brussel sprouts, broccoli, spinach
Deficiency problems:
  • bleeding gums, tiredness, weakness, sore muscle

Vitamin A - discovered in 1913
What it does:
  • helps with eyesight
  • keeps skin healthy
  • helps with growth of body organs (like bones)
Foods that have vitamin A:
  • liver, fish, milk, butter, eggs, carrots
Deficiency problems:
  • night blindness, poor growth, dry skin
vitamin a
Vitamin D - made in the skin by the sun
What it does:
  • helps bones grow strong
Foods that have vitamin D:
  • egg yolks, liver, butter, milk
Deficiency problems:
  • rickets (deformed bones), weak bones
vitamin d
Vitamin E - called the antiaging vitamin
What it does:
  • protects lungs against pollution damage
  • helps keep heart healthy
  • may help protect against cancer
Foods that have vitamin E:
  • sweet potatoes, peanut butter, sunflower seeds, spinach, nuts
Deficiency problems:
  • nerve destruction, red blood cell destruction
vitamin e
Vitamin K - made by bacteria in our intestines
What it does:
  • helps make blood clot
  • helps keep bones healthy
Foods that have vitamin K:
  • liver, cabbage, lettuce, spinach, milk, meat, eggs
Deficiency problems:
  • hemorrhage
vitamin k
By convention, the term vitamin includes neither other essential nutrients, such as dietary mineralsessential fatty acids, or essential amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins) nor the large number of other nutrients that promote health but are otherwise required less often. Thirteen vitamins are universally recognized at present.
Vitamins are classified by their biological and chemical activity, not their structure. Thus, each "vitamin" refers to a number of vitamer compounds that all show the biological activity associated with a particular vitamin. Such a set of chemicals is grouped under an alphabetized vitamin "generic descriptor" title, such as "vitamin A", which includes the compounds retinalretinol, and four known carotenoids. Vitamers by definition are convertible to the active form of the vitamin in the body, and are sometimes inter-convertible to one another, as well.
itamins have diverse biochemical functions. Some, such as vitamin D, have hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism, or regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation (such as some forms of vitamin A). Others function as antioxidants (e.g., vitamin E and sometimesvitamin C). The largest number of vitamins, the B complex vitamins, function as precursors for enzyme cofactors, that help enzymes in their work as catalysts in metabolism. In this role, vitamins may be tightly bound to enzymes as part of prosthetic groups: For example, biotin is part of enzymes involved in making fatty acids. They may also be less tightly bound to enzyme catalysts as coenzymes, detachable molecules that function to carry chemical groups or electrons between molecules. For example, folic acid may carry methylformyl, and methylene groups in the cell. Although these roles in assisting enzyme-substrate reactions are vitamins' best-known function, the other vitamin functions are equally important.

Until the mid-1930s, when the first commercial yeast-extract vitamin B complex and semi-synthetic vitamin C supplement tablets were sold, vitamins were obtained solely through food intake, and changes in diet (which, for example, could occur during a particular growing season) usually greatly altered the types and amounts of vitamins ingested. However, vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely available as inexpensive semisynthetic and synthetic-source multivitamin dietary and food supplements and additives, since the middle of the 20th century.,,,,,,,

List of vitamins

Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and, therefore, most have multiple functions.

Vitamin generic
descriptor name
Vitamerchemical name(s) (list not complete)SolubilityRecommended dietary allowances
(male, age 19–70)[6]
Deficiency diseaseUpper Intake Level
Overdose diseaseFood sources
Vitamin ARetinolretinal, and
four carotenoids
including beta carotene
Fat900 µgNight-blindness,Hyperkeratosis, andKeratomalacia[7]3,000 µgHypervitaminosis AOrange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, liver, soy milk, milk
Vitamin B1ThiamineWater1.2 mgBeriberiWernicke-Korsakoff syndromeN/D[8]Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.[9]Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2RiboflavinWater1.3 mgAriboflavinosisN/DDairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3NiacinniacinamideWater16.0 mgPellagra35.0 mgLiver damage (doses > 2g/day)[10] and other problemsMeat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5Pantothenic acidWater5.0 mg[11]ParesthesiaN/DDiarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.[12]Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6Pyridoxine,pyridoxamine,pyridoxalWater1.3–1.7 mgAnemia[13] peripheral neuropathy.100 mgImpairment ofproprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day)Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7BiotinWater30.0 µgDermatitisenteritisN/DRaw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, certain vegetables
Vitamin B9Folic acidfolinic acidWater400 µgMegaloblastic anemiaand Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects1,000 µgMay mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency;other effects.Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12Cyanocobalamin,hydroxycobalamin,methylcobalaminWater2.4 µgMegaloblastic anemia[14]N/DAcne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established].Meat and other animal products
Vitamin CAscorbic acidWater90.0 mgScurvy2,000 mgVitamin C megadosageMany fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin DCholecalciferolFat10 µg[15]Rickets andOsteomalacia50 µgHypervitaminosis DFish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin ETocopherols,tocotrienolsFat15.0 mgDeficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemiain newborn infants.[16]1,000 mgIncreased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study.[17]Many fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds
Vitamin Kphylloquinone,menaquinonesFat120 µgBleeding diathesisN/DIncreases coagulation in patients taking warfarin.[18]Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks, liver